Picture of Purvi Dass
Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Purvi Dass - Monday, 1 September 2014, 6:35 AM
 

Dear friends,

After an intense session with Dr. Rajesh Tandon, let us all come back to unit 3 reflection question.

 Reflection question

Imagine a general research question. Think of how you might go about answering this question from the perspective of a classical social scientist, and from the perspective of a participatory researcher. How might the processes and outcomes differ?

I was supposed to upload this question on 27th Aug and close the forum on 3rd September. Since this has been uploaded today the 1st September 2014, I shall keep the  Unit 3 forum open for discussion till 8th Sept 2014.

 Looking forward to your reflections,

All the best,

Purvi

 
Picture of Rahul Kanti Barua
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Rahul Kanti Barua - Sunday, 7 September 2014, 8:25 AM
 

Dear Purvi,

One of my objective to join in PR is know the way of construction of Research question. The unit three little bit confuse me because I am lack behind to research question. Can you or any body of this forum would like to help me on this issues..........

 

Thanks

Rahul

Picture of Nazmul Alam
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Nazmul Alam - Sunday, 7 September 2014, 3:28 PM
 

Dear Rahul da, 

Just think of a problem/issue , that is your research question. For example, Among the FSWs category who has the most income? Or You can ask question, Which settings of FSWs have most consistent condom usages? 

Hope that gives you some hints!!

Let me know.

 

Tuhin

 

 

Picture of Rahul Kanti Barua
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Rahul Kanti Barua - Monday, 8 September 2014, 12:01 AM
 

Dear Tuhin da,

Thanks for your clarification. However, I would like more on how to contract or way of wring Research or thesis statement base on the research question, and enrich my knowledge to answer the research question or prof the statement by using both quantitative and qualitative i.e. PR. 

With thanks and regards

Rahul

 

Picture of Kazi Eliza Islam
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Kazi Eliza Islam - Sunday, 7 September 2014, 4:20 PM
 

 

General research question: “What causes high prevalence of malnutrition (stunting) among children under two years of age in Sylhet division of Bangladesh?”

 We can apply either classical social research method or participatory research method to answer the above question; however the process and outcomes will be quite different accordingly to the method that would be applied:

Following are some key differences that might occur in terms of process and outcomes of the research

Process

 

 Classical social research

Participatory Research

Who identifies and determines the problem?

Professional researchers/social scientist based on existing knowledge, secondary source of information and primary data collection using quantitative and qualitative research methodologies will identify high prevalence stunting as a problem with high potential of adverse impact on child growth and development in the Sylhet division of Bangladesh.

With the facilitation of professional researchers the community (Family members of children under five particularly fathers, mothers/care givers of children under five and their adolescents siblings, community leaders, local govt actors, health and nutrition service providers etc) will be able to realize and articulate stunting as a problem .  Through the participatory problem analysis process they will become aware of the consequences of malnutrition on children’s growth and development (physical, social and economic) and be able to prioritize this problem as an issue to be addressed collectively.

Difference between tools and methods of data collection and analysis

The research team under the leadership of a professional social scientist will design a mixed method research and apply a range of quantitative and qualitative tools to determine the scale and depth of the problem, as well as to understand the social, economic, institutional and political factors that drive high prevalence of malnutrition(stunting) in this particular region of Bangladesh. The researcher identify specific research questions, develop various data collections instruments, collect and analyse data using established and rigorus statistical and methods.

The community with the facilitation of the professional researchers analyse the social, economic, institutional and political factors that drive malnutrition in this area. The professional researchers who will become a facilitator will develop data collection instruments in consultation with the community and will apply a range of participatory tools such as problem tree, social resource mapping, venn diagram, daily clock, life history, story telling, etc. to analyse causes of malnutrition in that particular geographical areas.

Community will define malnutrition in their own language and the data collection tools and instruments will be developed in consultation with the community. With the application of these tools and participatory methods, the researchers will help the community and the affected households (parents of malnourished children), adolescents groups (both girls and boys) to analyse the multiple and inter-related causes of malnutrition (stunting) in this region. Through this process the participants will become aware and be able to critically reflect on their reality, will have the opportunity to actively participate in the entire process of data collection, analysis and interpretation and ultimately become the researcher. Through this conscientisation process the participants will feel empowered and be able to analyse complex issues like social network, gender discrimination, early marriage and early pregnancy and their impact on malnutrition.

Outcomes

 Classical social research

Participatory Research

Generation of knowledge

Based on rigorus analysis using sophisticated statistical software, the study team generates new knowledge or reconfirm/validate existing knowledge regarding immediate, basic and underlying causes of malnutrition.  

 

Based on their existing knowledge, real life experiences and knowledge generated through the participatory process , the individual participants, the hh and the community will become aware and more knowledgeable about the issue of malnutrition. 

Use of knowledge

The knowledge level of mothers and care givers will increase but not necessarily the new knowledge will guarantee change/improvement in their IYCF (Infant and Young Child Feeing) practices which is key to address malnutrition (stunting) among children.

 

The community leaders and local government actors will become aware of the problem of malnutrition but since they were just passive receiver of the new know ledge and were not actively involved in the whole process of knowledge generation, they may not be interested to take collective action to address the problem.

 

Because of the Participatory Action Research process, mothers and care givers of children under five will become not only knowledgeable but also more likely to be empowered to take action on improving IYCF that is one of the key determinants of malnutrition. 

 

The PR process will contribute in bringing community leaders, local govt actors, adolescents girls, together to conduct join nutrition analysis and to take collective action to address community and institutional level causes of malnutrition.

For instance, if the community leaders and adolescents groups realize the importance of WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) as a key determinant of malnutrition, they are more likely to take collective action to improve the WASH situation of their community to address malnutrition. 

 

 

Based on the existing knowledge and with generation of new knowledge, the local govt actors will become more responsible to develop and implement action plan that will contribute in improving food security and nutrition situation in their community.

Adolescent boys and girls will share the new knowledge with their peer and also more likely to take collective action to prevent  social causes like early marriage and early pregnancy to prevent incidence of stunting.

 

A final report will be produced and shared with all key stakeholders including donors and policy makers

Collective and individual household level action oriented plan will be developed to address various multi-dimensional causes of malnutrition. 

Participation and empowerment

Mothers/care givers of children under five,  fathers and siblings, community leaders, adolescents groups will participate in the process of data collection as passive informant, less opportunity and/or likeliness to take any active role / action to change the situation

Through the PR process, Mothers/care givers of children under five, fathers and siblings, community leaders, adolescents groups (both boys and girls) will participate in each crucial steps of the research, will have more control over the process as well as outcomes of the research and will be more likely to take actions to change the situation.

Taniya Laizu Sumy, Manager- Curriculum and Material Development, SHIKHON Program, Save the Children
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Taniya Laizu Sumy - Sunday, 7 September 2014, 4:51 PM
 

If I think of a research titled ``An Study on the Effectiveness of Instructional Materials in Children’s Learning of SHIKHON Program” which will be conducted following the general objective as ``To figure out the effectiveness of instructional materials in classroom situation for further development to support children’s learning”. I can think about the specific objectives of this study are to-

  • Document the usefulness and difficulties of using instructional materials in Teaching-Learning process.
  • Capture parents’, teachers’ and technical staffs’ opinions and suggestions about the instructional materials.
  • Identify the gaps between design and practice.
  • Draw recommendation for further revision and development.

Considering the above objectives I can imagine a general research question that ``How the instructional materials are helping to effective children’s learning”. The general research questions might be fragmented in following questions:

  1. How the children are being assisted to learn by instructional materials?
  2. How the teachers are being benefited by instructional materials?
  3. What are the difficulties of instructional materials that teachers face?
  4. How could be the instructional materials improvised for further revision and development?

 

Answering from classical social scientist perspective:

In order to find the answer of the research question from the paradigm of classical social scientist I will follow the top-down method. As I will initiate the research topic and will be act as conductor of the research I will have the full control over the process. The stakeholders as children, teachers and technical staff of the program will act as the subject. Their participation will be ensured as my plan. Some of they will be interviewed and observed and some will participate in FGD (Focus Group Discussion). I will select areas as per the design. The samples will be designed as per my objectives in a scientific way. I will collect data through desktop review (instructional design of the materials), classroom observation (based on observation checklist), interview of the teachers and technical staff (based on interview questionnaires) and FGD of parents/community people (based on FGD questionnaires). The research tools will be developed by me by reviewing previous references and documents. It could be field tested but the subjects will not participate in design and review process. The data will be collected by data collectors who will be oriented on the tools by me. The data will be managed and statistically analyzed by me as the researcher. I will produce final report and share with academicians and other educational researchers. The whole process and product will be controlled by me. The process will be strict enough to achieve the objectives. The subjects will participate to complete my research considering the theoretical platform and scientific method, not as a part of facilitators.

 

Answering from participatory researcher perspective:

In order to find the answer of the research question from the paradigm of participatory researcher I will follow the bottom-up approach. The participation of the stakeholders will be from design to implementation level. The process will be controlled by me (researcher), children, teachers, technical staff and parents cooperatively in a balanced way. The role of the facilitators will be clarified well. Before selecting the topic the issues will be prioritized based on the field’s as well as community demand. The area selection and samples selections will be finalized considering all’s opinions but in a scientific way. The data collection procedures will be discussed in group and decided as well. The critical reflections from various groups will be incorporated. The design will not be rigid but could be flexible based on the situation. In case of inexperienced community group PRA method could be in place. I will as a researcher will facilitate the whole process as it remains in track to achieve the objectives. The data can be collected by the community people even involving the children. The action based knowledge could be generated. Data analyzing process would be customized based on the situation and the report produces as well. The report will be shared with the beneficiaries. I will be within the area where the research will be conducted to ensure the whole participation. The process will be flexible enough but the product will be in hand considering the objectives.

 

How the process and outcomes differ?

In classical social scientist and participatory researchers, process and outcomes are treated differently. In the classical social scientist perspective the process is rigid and controlled by researcher as if like a pig which is pushed on a wall to one way. The product is important and the process is conducted to go to the product. But in participatory researcher perspective the process is flexible as like a hammer which pull the knowledge, experience and learning of the community/beneficiaries and push the expertise theory in a balanced way. This is a both way process. Here product or outcome is important but produced by the process. I can make distinguishes from discussions above between process and outcomes in two types of perspectives as below:

 

Classical Social Scientist

Participatory Researcher

Process

  • The topic will be program’s or researcher’s need.
  • The aim and objective is very much clear from theoretical aspect.
  • The process will follow top-down approach.
  • The researcher will control over full process.
  • The professional researcher will conduct research.
  • The actors will be passive.
  • The process will be rigid based on theory and methodology.
  • Tested and reliable tools will be used in data collection.
  • The researcher will manage and analyze data from statistical point of view.
  •  The topic will be based on community or implementation demand.
  • The aim and objective is determined by the situation.
  • The process will follow bottom-up approach.
  • The actor and researcher together will control over the process.
  • The main researcher along with other participants will facilitate the research.
  • The actors will be active.
  • The process will be flexible based on relative situation.
  • Tools based on group discussion and theories by facilitators will be used in data collection.
  • The facilitators will manage and analyze data from qualitative point of view.

Outcomes

  • Outcomes are treated as the product. The product will be as external publication.
  • The product will be shared within academic circles.
  • Specific recommendations will be in product.
  • The product will be used by professional researchers.
 
  • The reports will be produced as product. It is more internal.
  • The outcomes will be shared with beneficiaries/communities/implementers.
  • Actions will be taken place based on Knowledge.
  • The product as well as outcomes will be used by implementers.
Picture of Rahul Kanti Barua
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Rahul Kanti Barua - Monday, 8 September 2014, 7:30 AM
 

Dear Taniya apa,

Can you clarify about your Research question. It sense to me like 1st one is Leading question and the other set of question are supporting question.

Thanks

Rahul

Taniya Laizu Sumy, Manager- Curriculum and Material Development, SHIKHON Program, Save the Children
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Taniya Laizu Sumy - Monday, 8 September 2014, 8:16 AM
 

You are right Rahul da. The leading one is general question written as broader form which has been spitted into specific questions. The specific questions help to set methodologies and develop research tools.

Thank you very much. Hope to discuss in F2F more for my learning.

Regards,

Taniya.

Picture of Rahul Kanti Barua
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Rahul Kanti Barua - Sunday, 7 September 2014, 11:04 PM
 
Research Question: Why the children dropout from the institution or schools, are continuing education in SHIKHON schools? 1. Answer the question from the perspective of classical social scientist: As the classical social scientist uses the top to bottom approach, and researcher has the full control over the research design, data process, methodology and instruments or tools, results or outcome etc. The answer might be questioned base as per the researcher’s interest or institutional or professional requirements, etc. To find out the answer, researcher might go for interviewing with the children and their patients, schools teachers and also conduct FGD with the communities and others stakeholders like GO/NGO. Thereafter, Researcher will compile the data and analysis situation or data and interpretation the data and prepare the report as per his/her requirements or institutional demand or objective. This research findings will be used by researcher or other academics or funding bodies. In designing this research, the problem identify only the interest on researcher i.e. there is no involvement of the community, children, parents, GO/NGO staffs and the outcome or results will use for his/her academic purposes, own interest. 2. Answer the question from the perspective of participatory researcher: On the other hand, for answering the question from the perspective of participatory researcher, the problem or situation will be identify the communities or researcher, where researcher could be facilitators and make the problems or situation in an understandable way to the communities. Local communities will identify their own problems, and find out the answer of the questions by themselves, make solution and take action by working with collaboration or participation. In that case researcher might have to use small scale of survey in the areas, interview and FGD with communities, children, parents, teachers and other stakeholders (GO/NGO). In this total process, communities will identify their own problem, analysis and interpret their problem or situation and come up with solution by the participation of the communities, children, parents, teachers and other stakeholders (GO/NGO) and take action accordingly. Processes differences between classical social scientist and PR: • Researcher and community people will identify the research problem in the PR, where only researcher will identify the problem. • In participatory research community people, children, parents, teachers and other stakeholders (GO/NGO) and the researcher involve in the data collection process whereas, in the classical social scientist, only researcher will involve the data collection process. • In the PR, local concepts, thought, believe & frameworks will be used for data interpretation, however in the classical social scientist, disciplinary or institutional concepts & frameworks will be use. • In the PR, community people, children, parents, teachers and other stakeholder (GO/NGO) and researcher will analysis the situation or problems, whereas only researcher will analysis the situation or problems in the classical social science. Outcome differences between classical social scientist and PR: In the participatory research, results or outcomes from the findings are locally accessible and useful in the community as well as the external or outsider. Therefore, an action might be taken as per the outcome or results from the findings for their sustainable development. On the other hand, results or outcome will be used for researcher or academics or external agencies or funding bodies. Ultimately, in PR, community people are the ownership of the outcomes and control of information by themselves, however, in classical social scientist, researcher is the ownership and control over the information.
Picture of Rahul Kanti Barua
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Rahul Kanti Barua - Sunday, 7 September 2014, 11:50 PM
 

Research Question:

Why the children dropout from the institution or schools, are continuing education in SHIKHON schools?

1.  Answer the question from the perspective of classical social scientist:

As the classical social scientist uses the top to bottom approach, and researcher has the full control over the research design, data process, methodology and instruments or tools, results or outcome etc. The answer might be questioned base as per the researcher’s interest or institutional or professional requirements, etc. To find out the answer, researcher might go for interviewing with the children and their patients, schools teachers and also conduct FGD with the communities and others stakeholders like GO/NGO and find out the reasons behind their children dropout from schools and why children are continuing their education in the SHIKHON Schools . Thereafter, Researcher will compile the data and analysis situation or data and interpretation the data and prepare the report as per his/her requirements or institutional demand or objective. This research findings will be used by researcher or other academics or funding bodies.

In designing this research, the problem identify only the interest on researcher i.e. there is no involvement of the community, children, parents, GO/NGO staffs and the outcome or results will use for his/her academic purposes, own interest.

 

2.  Answer the question from the perspective of participatory researcher:

On the other hand, for answering the question from the perspective of participatory researcher, the problem or situation will be identify the communities or researcher, where researcher could be facilitators and make the problems or situation in an understandable way to the communities. Local communities will identify the situation of dropout of their children from the school and continuing education in the SHIKHON schools and what’s problems behind the dropout and why they choice and decide to continue their children education in the SHKHON Schools, and find out the answer of the questions by themselves, make solution and take action by working with collaboration or participation. In that case, researcher might have to use small scale of survey in the areas, interview and FGD with communities, children, parents, teachers and other stakeholders (GO/NGO).

In this total process, communities will identify their own problem or situation, analysis and interpret their problem or situation and come up with solution by the participation of the communities, children, parents, teachers and other stakeholders (GO/NGO) and take action accordingly.

 

Processes differences between classical social scientist and PR:

  • Researcher and community people will identify the research problem or situation of dropout reasons in the schools and reason behind to continuing education in the PR, whereas only researcher will identify the problem or situation.
  • In participatory research community people, children, parents, teachers and other stakeholders (GO/NGO) and the researcher involve in the data collection process whereas, in the classical social scientist, only researcher will involve the data collection process.
  • In the PR, local concepts, thought, believe & frameworks will be used for data interpretation, however in the classical social scientist, disciplinary or institutional concepts & frameworks will be use.
  • In the PR, community people, children, parents, teachers and other stakeholder (GO/NGO) and researcher will analysis the situation or problems, whereas only researcher will analysis the situation or problems in the classical social science.    

 

Outcome differences between classical social scientist and PR:

In the participatory research, results or outcomes from the findings are locally accessible and useful in the community as well as the external or outsider. Therefore, an action might be taken as per the outcome or results from the findings for their sustainable development. On the other hand, results or outcome will be used for researcher or academics or external agencies or funding bodies. Ultimately, in PR, community people are the ownership of the outcomes and control of information by themselves, however, in classical social scientist, researcher is the ownership and control over the information.

Picture of Rahul Kanti Barua
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Rahul Kanti Barua - Sunday, 7 September 2014, 11:53 PM
 

Dear Purvi,

Can you ignore or delete my first posting at 11.50 PM.

thanks

Rahul 

Picture of Purvi Dass
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Purvi Dass - Monday, 8 September 2014, 7:09 AM
 

Dear friends,

There you all are... supporting each others' learning.Thanks Tuhin for giving a clear, short and crisp answer !!!! Keep it up!!!.

Yes, Rahul I have omitted the paragraph you want me not to consider while consolidating the DF.

Thanks Eliza and Taniya for the clear comparison tables and other info!!!!

Forum would close mid tonight, but the questions/doubts we would continue to work on through online as well Face to Face training.

Shall wait to hear from others...........,

All the best,

Purvi

Picture of Abdul Gaffer Mondal
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Abdul Gaffer Mondal - Monday, 8 September 2014, 9:49 AM
 

Dear Purvi Madam

Greetings !!

Pls. find the attached file for Reflection Question of Unit-3.

Regards

Abdul Gaffer

Picture of Nazmul Alam
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Nazmul Alam - Monday, 8 September 2014, 11:52 AM
 

Research Question:

Is there any relationship between intimate partner violence and micro credit?

 

Research Process

Classical Social Research

Participatory Research

Identifying a research problem

As a social scientist I will look up on existing knowledge, secondary source of information and recent literature to identify a specific area of research and will decide where to conduct the research. 

 

As a facilitator my focus will be to ensure local community people decides about the research statement or problem. As the problem is persistent in the community people will decide which specific area they will focus. providing them the linkage of Micro credit and gender violence, i will ask their thoughts in this matter and when giving them the research problem they will elaborate as they look convenient.  

Clarifying the research objective and questions

In most cases from the secondary analysis, classical researchers will select objective and questions of research and their focus will be on gap analysis in this issue.

 

 

Community people will gather together and will carry on discussion in this matter and they will take up the question and objective that are more relevant to mitigate the problem. They will participate in discussing, the types of violence, category of family that have history of violence and financial aspects. And possible areas of intervention in this matter

Tools and method development

Tools will be developed using mostly the mixed method. Quantitative tools and analysis and scientific sampling procedures will be used to make the finding more generalized and precise.  The sampling procedure will be either, cluster or stratified non probable random sampling. Along with the quantitative, there will be a part of qualitative research to understand and triangulate some indicators of the research question.

Mostly qualitative and PRA tools will be used. Based on the focused issues the tools will be developed and utilized.

 

The research tools and questions will be developed keeping in mind the strength and weakness of respondents in the community.

Field work and data collection

Data collection will be done in a more structured and planned way with professional researchers.

In a flexible process, most cases the data collection will be done in informal way, in some local gathering, courtyard meeting and such

Data analysis and findings

Data analysis will be done using various up to dated software (SPSS, STATA, NVivo etc)

Data analysis will be done with indicators correlation and regression analysis. The statistical parameter will be then verified against the qualitative theme.

 

 

In most cases, data analysis will be done in manual (paper pen transcript method, audio record). The data will be categorized in various themes as per discussion among the researchers.

 

These themes will be elaborately discussed and noted down. After wards it will be detailed out with inline of problems and probable solutions.

 

 

Outcomes

 

Utilization of knowledge

In most case the knowledge will be used as product and a wider dissemination will take place and will be used for mostly as academically acknowledged work.

 

 The recommendations and findings  may or may not reach to community people.

 

It will be presented to policy makers and civil society working in this issue.

 

Local people will try to mitigate accordingly and utilize the findings as per needs. In the process of making an action plan to implement possible recommendations.

Ownership

Respondents and local community will have nor or limited ownership in these findings. They will be referred only for their participation  

Local community will personally own the overall research project and its outcome. And they will consider it as their own due to their involvement in this matter.

 

Both the pattern has it’s own advantage and weakness, depending on  research strategy and objective a researcher need to design the model.  If a professional researcher collaborate with the local community people it will bring more authentic information and layman knowledge on the research issue.

In terms of classical research we will have very much structured and scientific generalized knowledge, however, the recommendation may be more of a theoretical type and implementing those can be a problematic issue. Some may not be culturally acceptable and complex to internalize.

On the other hand, PR can ensure easy understanding and acceptability within the population. May not be considered as a solid work by some scholars. But it will have more solid and practical measures to bring the situation in a comprehensive pattern.

When I am using PR, I need to make sure the responses I am receiving are aligned with research topic and theme. also need to have a mindful insights that the researchers are the participants and obtaining good information (non biased) need careful screening of data.

Picture of Md. Nazmul Haque Sardar
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Md. Nazmul Haque Sardar - Monday, 8 September 2014, 3:43 PM
 

Understanding of Stigma, Discrimination and Violence against Brothel Based Sex Workers’ in the Context of Bangladesh


More than two decades, in Bangladesh NGOs have been working with the sex workers in mobilizing them to get better access to services. But the interventions were mostly focused on education programs for preventing STIs, HIV and AIDS and were not much focused to deal with stigma, discrimination and violence against sex workers.  For considering this, to measure the existing situation of the brothel based sex workers in Tangail Brothel in relation to stigma, discrimination and violence against sex workers, I have applied both classical social research and participatory research methods. The following are some significant differences between Social Research [SR] and Participatory Research [PR]:

1.      Intention behind the research:

·         [SR] Take especial intervention by the national body based on the findings of the research and influence donors.   

·         [PR] Standard the research findings and influences to policy makers, implementing organizations for prioritizing the problem as an issue to be addressed collectively.  

2.      Who identify the problem?:

·         [SR]National bodies who are worked on stigma, discrimination and violence against sex workers. Professional researcher and or institute/organization who are working on stigma, discrimination and violence against sex workers.

·         [PR] Sex workers community will be initiated with the facilitation of professional researcher who have interest on the issue. 

3.      Tools, techniques and methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation:

·         [SR]Developed tools, techniques and methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation by professional researcher. Both qualitative and quantitative is applied for generate data and information.  More scientific and computerized analyzing software applied.

·         [PR] With the facilitation of professional researcher, data collection tools, techniques and methods determined with active participation of sex workers community along with other associates. More simple, easily understandable and participatory analyzing process customized by the facilitation of professional researcher.

4.      Research findings sharing:

·         [SR]Research findings shared in particularly focus on policy & decision makers, donors, implementers and to some extent with sex workers community

·         [PR] Focus on sex workers community and to some extent with policy/decision makers and other activists.

5.      Research Outcome:

·         [SR]The research outcome is a national research document which is published and shared with relevant department, donors, national/international organizations who are working on stigma, discrimination and violence against sex workers. This document is also used for researcher to make further reference.

·         [PR]A research report is produced as outcome which is mostly focus on advocacy tools for policy/decision makers, donors and other institutes/ agencies/ organization who are working stigma, discrimination and violence against sex workers. Initiate community lead intervention by the sex workers community as outcome of the research

6.      Knowledge generation and reflection:

·         [SR]Professional researcher along with research team members is generated new knowledge and or firmed existing knowledge by doing this research.

·         [PR] Sex workers community co-related their existing knowledge, risky behavior and practices through sharing research findings and involved with entire process of research conduction by the professional researcher.

 

Picture of Mirza Moinul Islam
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Mirza Moinul Islam - Monday, 8 September 2014, 5:35 PM
 

Research question: What are the key factors putting children at risk of drug abuse?

Process

Classical social research

Participatory Research

Basic principle

An investigator begins a research study after evolving ideas from a specific theory, which is an integrated set of statements for explaining various phenomena.

Participatory research methods are geared towards planning and conducting the research process with those people whose life-world and meaningful actions are under study.

Research question

The research question raise either disprove or do not disprove the hypothesis. If disproved, the investigator cannot make predictions based on the hypothesis, and must question the accuracy of the theory. If not disproved, the researcher can make predictions based on the hypothesis.

In the participatory research every day practices, which have long since established themselves as a subject of inquiry, introduce their own perspective, namely, the way people deal with the existential challenges of everyday life.

Objectives, Tools, Methods & Analysis

Researcher achieves learning, and larger group may also learn

Researcher and select participants learn about larger group

The researcher facilitates the process, and collaborates with clients to create or actualize change.

Researcher typically does not engage in change actions.

Participants make essential decisions in research project by which they are affected

Researcher collaborates with “clients”

Researcher works with “participants”

Researcher and clients engage in self-reflection

Researcher works with select participants / No Expert

3rd party researcher engages in change as expert

Group works to change self with researcher not as expert

Emergent property: improved capacity and wisdom

Emergent property: self-knowledge

Mixed method research and apply both quantitative and qualitative tools to determine the scale and depth of the problem.

Develop data collection instruments in consultation with the community and will apply a range of participatory tools

Develop various data collections instruments, collect and analyze data using established and vigorous statistical and methods.

In the PR participants will have the opportunity to actively participate in the entire process of data collection, analysis and interpretation and ultimately become the researcher.

Outcome

The knowledge base of social work is the accumulated theoretical work and empirical work. It consists of a set of activities related to the awareness, consideration and use of knowledge to make practice decisions.

PR practitioners make a concerted effort to integrate three basic aspects of their work: participation (life in society and democracy), action (engagement with experience and history), and research (soundness in thought and the growth of knowledge).

Challenges

In the classical research setting, the relationship between researchers and researched seems to be clearly defined. Basically, it is a non-relationship in which the researcher is, as far as possible, neutral or invisible. Anything else is considered to lead to the distortion of the results or to threaten the internal validity

This situation changes radically when the relationship between the participants is put on a participatory footing. In this case, the perspectives of the various partners and their differences of opinion are important for the process of discovery; objectivity and neutrality must be replaced by reflective subjectivity.

From the above table we can accommodate the research question in classical social research or participatory research. In the view of the social workers, there are a long-standing interest in the relation of knowledge and practice. Both the tasks of practice and the knowledge use to accomplish these tasks are defining characteristics of any profession. On the other hand PR process, communities of inquiry, action evolves and addresses questions and issues that are significant for those who participate as co-researchers.

SSM Hejbullah
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Sheikh Sultan Muhammad Hejbullah - Monday, 8 September 2014, 6:45 PM
 

Dear Purvi,

Please find my reflection on Unit-3 as attached.

Thanks,

Hejbullah

Picture of Khaleda Akhter
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Khaleda Akhter - Monday, 8 September 2014, 11:06 PM
 

General research question: How sexual and gender-based violence against children of the tea garden will be address?

Process:

Perspective of Participatory Researcher:

Participatory Researcher (PR) always takes action against the problem coming from the community people, so community people are the main actors to inform the context/problem to the PR.

After identifying and analyzing the problem with the community people, PR and community members will work jointly. Before starting work with the community the community members,  researchers must learn everything that can be found out about the community and its members, both historically and sociologically, through available records, interviews, observations, and participation in the life of the community. As the researcher is not an established member of the community, he or she must be a committed participant and be accepted by the community. Because a transparent relationship is needed while working with any sort of sensitive issues. Responsibility, trust and power are the main principles while making this kind of agreement with community people.

PR will formulate a small research group with the support of the community people. PR will explain the purpose of the research and will begin to identify and solicit help from key persons of the children’s life who will play an active role in the execution of the project. In this process, the PR will act as a discussion organizer and facilitator and as a technical resource person to know the dynamics/ types of sexual and gender based violence in their community.

This group will prepare an action plan and part of this process they will prepare a research design. PR will contact members of the community, activate their interest in the problem to be dealt with by action-driven research, and helps to organize community meetings where the relevant research issues would be discussed. This initial phase of organizing the project will take considerable time and effort. Good interpersonal skill and capability to understand the situation are necessary for making PR trust worthy to the community people.

Joint data analysis will be taken by the active involvement of the children, community group members.  Through dialogue, people will come together and participate in all the crucial aspects of the investigation, educational and collective action. Dialogue will help people to identify the problems and to find the  solution of the problems for the betterment of the children.

In this part, PR along with community members will arrange a finding sharing session.  After sharing the true evidences, community partnerships will be developed.  PR will create an authentic and mutual relationship to develop a plan to aware and motivate children and community people. The role of the PR in this process will not only to facilitate learning but also to learn from the participants. PR will ensure active involvement of the community people.

 For better implementation of the planned activities PR and community people will be able to change the existing activities with proper discussion, exchange dialogue and logical explanation of community people. Here PR will not impose his or her ideas and thought to the community people.     

 

Perspective of a Classical Social Scientist:

Classical Social Scientist (CSS) is the only actor to choice the problem and issue for researching. CSS will conduct the research for some institute, professional, donor perspective and his or her personal interests. He or she will never consider the feelings and problem face by the community people to deal with sexual and gender based violence. CSS will observe the situation and sense the problem. CSS will not try to know exactly what is happening, but CSS should definitely sense that things are not going as smoothly as they should be.

 

Once CSS becomes aware of what is happening with the children in the community, she/he would then focus on the problem. A research problem should be specific, as without a focused definition of the problem, data tends to be irrelevant, expensive and confusing.

 

Once the problem will identify, the CSS will carefully examines the earlier studies, to see if any are similar to the study in hand. It will help to integrate information locally, so that reason for the problem can be conceptualized. This will help to develop a theoretical framework. This step essentially involves a review of related literature. It will familiarize the CSS with what is already known and considers what is still unknown and untested.

The researcher will develop a hypothesis, which will be drawn from the theoretical framework.

CSS will control the overall research design and there is no mutual agreement between CSS and community people. Here CSS will make the plan, structure and strategy for conducting research. It will describe the general framework for collecting, analyzing and evaluating data. It will help to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. It will enable the researcher to answer research questions about validity, as objectively, accurately and economically as possible. Design should be carefully worked out to yield dependable and valid answers to the research questions. A research team will be formulated under the leadership of CSS. After completing the task a piloting will be  conducted for finalizing research methodology and tools.

 

CSS will do statistical analysis of data that will be collected, edited, coded and tabulated. Data will be analyzed, categorized, ordered, manipulated and summarized to obtain answers of the research questions. Different statistical techniques will use at this stage. CSS will interpret the result after completion of data analysis. She /he will make inference to the research relation.

 

Finally, the researcher will prepare the report of the research conducted. The objective for preparing the report will be to inform findings to the agencies, donor and readers. CSS will not share the report with community members. 

 

 Outcomes:

Perspective of Participatory Researcher:

The finding and result of the research will be share with the community people. PR will establish a rapport with the community members to make them cooperate in the research process. By building a trust worthy situation, PR will involve community members and the children to act as active participants. Since from the beginning children and the community members are involved in the research process that’s why they will own the research result and findings.

New knowledge will be created through the active participation of the children and community people. They will more open to seek new information and to understand the context of concrete problems of children’s lives. Community members will be motivated by the result of the research and they will able to use this result to deal with the children if they see its relevance in addressing sexual and gender based violence inside the family and the community.

People will learn to exercise control over power, their own life and resource. The active participation of ordinary people in generating their own knowledge will be emphasized by the PR, which will help them to take responsibility to implement activities in the community.

Community members will disseminate new knowledge and information to combat sexual and gender based violence inside the community. They will not  use their Knowledge, responsibility, trust and power in negative way. Children of the community will enjoy a fearless environment, as they will get the scope to inform their learning and share their problem to the adult. Community members will feel an ownership towards their children.

A sense of empowerment will be created among the community members and children, as the process will give the opportunity to involve them into the social setting. Through this process, community members along with the children will provide their different opinion and feel free to participate in any sort of community actions. As a part of the process of the data analysis, options will be debated on the basis of concrete information.  As a result, community members and children will able to accept and reject options on an informed basis. After increasing knowledge on research issues community members and children will able to perform to the decision making process.

Self-confidence of the community members will be enhanced and increased their ability to take collective initiatives in their common interest.

Perspective of  Classical Social Scientist ( CSS):

The recommendations and findings may or may not reach to community members and children. The findings and result will share with the policy makers, different agencies, donor and professionals.  

Respondents and local community members will not own the findings of the research. Therefore, community members will not show their interest to take any collective measure in their common interest.

They will be referred only for their participation and will treat as passive information providers.

.

 

 

Picture of Khaleda Akhter
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Khaleda Akhter - Monday, 8 September 2014, 11:09 PM
 

General research question: How sexual and gender-based violence against children of the tea garden will be address?

Process:

Perspective of Participatory Researcher:

Participatory Researcher (PR) always takes action against the problem coming from the community people, so community people are the main actors to inform the context/problem to the PR.

After identifying and analyzing the problem with the community people, PR and community members will work jointly. Before starting work with the community the community members,  researchers must learn everything that can be found out about the community and its members, both historically and sociologically, through available records, interviews, observations, and participation in the life of the community. As the researcher is not an established member of the community, he or she must be a committed participant and be accepted by the community. Because a transparent relationship is needed while working with any sort of sensitive issues. Responsibility, trust and power are the main principles while making this kind of agreement with community people.

PR will formulate a small research group with the support of the community people. PR will explain the purpose of the research and will begin to identify and solicit help from key persons of the children’s life who will play an active role in the execution of the project. In this process, the PR will act as a discussion organizer and facilitator and as a technical resource person to know the dynamics/ types of sexual and gender based violence in their community.

This group will prepare an action plan and part of this process they will prepare a research design. PR will contact members of the community, activate their interest in the problem to be dealt with by action-driven research, and helps to organize community meetings where the relevant research issues would be discussed. This initial phase of organizing the project will take considerable time and effort. Good interpersonal skill and capability to understand the situation are necessary for making PR trust worthy to the community people.

Joint data analysis will be taken by the active involvement of the children, community group members.  Through dialogue, people will come together and participate in all the crucial aspects of the investigation, educational and collective action. Dialogue will help people to identify the problems and to find the  solution of the problems for the betterment of the children.

In this part, PR along with community members will arrange a finding sharing session.  After sharing the true evidences, community partnerships will be developed.  PR will create an authentic and mutual relationship to develop a plan to aware and motivate children and community people. The role of the PR in this process will not only to facilitate learning but also to learn from the participants. PR will ensure active involvement of the community people.

 For better implementation of the planned activities PR and community people will be able to change the existing activities with proper discussion, exchange dialogue and logical explanation of community people. Here PR will not impose his or her ideas and thought to the community people.     

 

Perspective of a Classical Social Scientist:

Classical Social Scientist (CSS) is the only actor to choice the problem and issue for researching. CSS will conduct the research for some institute, professional, donor perspective and his or her personal interests. He or she will never consider the feelings and problem face by the community people to deal with sexual and gender based violence. CSS will observe the situation and sense the problem. CSS will not try to know exactly what is happening, but CSS should definitely sense that things are not going as smoothly as they should be.

 

Once CSS becomes aware of what is happening with the children in the community, she/he would then focus on the problem. A research problem should be specific, as without a focused definition of the problem, data tends to be irrelevant, expensive and confusing.

 

Once the problem will identify, the CSS will carefully examines the earlier studies, to see if any are similar to the study in hand. It will help to integrate information locally, so that reason for the problem can be conceptualized. This will help to develop a theoretical framework. This step essentially involves a review of related literature. It will familiarize the CSS with what is already known and considers what is still unknown and untested.

The researcher will develop a hypothesis, which will be drawn from the theoretical framework.

CSS will control the overall research design and there is no mutual agreement between CSS and community people. Here CSS will make the plan, structure and strategy for conducting research. It will describe the general framework for collecting, analyzing and evaluating data. It will help to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. It will enable the researcher to answer research questions about validity, as objectively, accurately and economically as possible. Design should be carefully worked out to yield dependable and valid answers to the research questions. A research team will be formulated under the leadership of CSS. After completing the task a piloting will be  conducted for finalizing research methodology and tools.

 

CSS will do statistical analysis of data that will be collected, edited, coded and tabulated. Data will be analyzed, categorized, ordered, manipulated and summarized to obtain answers of the research questions. Different statistical techniques will use at this stage. CSS will interpret the result after completion of data analysis. She /he will make inference to the research relation.

 

Finally, the researcher will prepare the report of the research conducted. The objective for preparing the report will be to inform findings to the agencies, donor and readers. CSS will not share the report with community members. 

 

 Outcomes:

Perspective of Participatory Researcher:

The finding and result of the research will be share with the community people. PR will establish a rapport with the community members to make them cooperate in the research process. By building a trust worthy situation, PR will involve community members and the children to act as active participants. Since from the beginning children and the community members are involved in the research process that’s why they will own the research result and findings.

New knowledge will be created through the active participation of the children and community people. They will more open to seek new information and to understand the context of concrete problems of children’s lives. Community members will be motivated by the result of the research and they will able to use this result to deal with the children if they see its relevance in addressing sexual and gender based violence inside the family and the community.

People will learn to exercise control over power, their own life and resource. The active participation of ordinary people in generating their own knowledge will be emphasized by the PR, which will help them to take responsibility to implement activities in the community.

Community members will disseminate new knowledge and information to combat sexual and gender based violence inside the community. They will not  use their Knowledge, responsibility, trust and power in negative way. Children of the community will enjoy a fearless environment, as they will get the scope to inform their learning and share their problem to the adult. Community members will feel an ownership towards their children.

A sense of empowerment will be created among the community members and children, as the process will give the opportunity to involve them into the social setting. Through this process, community members along with the children will provide their different opinion and feel free to participate in any sort of community actions. As a part of the process of the data analysis, options will be debated on the basis of concrete information.  As a result, community members and children will able to accept and reject options on an informed basis. After increasing knowledge on research issues community members and children will able to perform to the decision making process.

Self-confidence of the community members will be enhanced and increased their ability to take collective initiatives in their common interest.

Perspective of  Classical Social Scientist ( CSS):

The recommendations and findings may or may not reach to community members and children. The findings and result will share with the policy makers, different agencies, donor and professionals.  

Respondents and local community members will not own the findings of the research. Therefore, community members will not show their interest to take any collective measure in their common interest.

They will be referred only for their participation and will treat as passive information providers.

.

 

 

Picture of Masudur Rahman
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Masudur Rahman - Tuesday, 9 September 2014, 9:22 PM
 

Its shame that still I didn't submit the reflection question, I am in so rush as before my fly to India I had to organize some big residential events... Purbi Di I am confident that I can submit the reflection by tomorrow. Anyway I already submitted the Quiz. Pardon me this time for late. 

Masud

Picture of Masudur Rahman
Re: Reflection question of Unit 3!!!!!
by Masudur Rahman - Thursday, 11 September 2014, 12:03 AM
 

 

If we assume the Research Question as “the causes behind the Unsafe Child Migration from Rural to Urban” the below method will may follow from the perspective of Participatory Action Research and Classical Social Science Research –

 

Process

Participatory Research

Classical Social Research

Problem Identification

 

The community people, problem facing people will select either this is the main problem or not, in this case the community will form a small group to discuss what will be their main problem is, and how they want to address it. That’s how the problem will be finalized.

The researcher will come with the research problem to community and s/he may discuss it with society (after finalization of the problem by him) or directly comes to the community for conducting HIS research. The researcher will follow mainly the existing knowledge which he gathered from secondary sources.

Reviewing the literature/Existing knowledge

The researcher and the community people jointly search the knowledge from their nearer community or same category community that how they solve this kind of problem. They gather the knowledge that practiced in another community.

Will analyze the internet source or for other expert’s opinion, different article etc.

Research design/method

 

By following the previous 2 steps, community people will select how they want to conduct this research, this may include the PRA.

Mostly follow both the quantitative and qualitative methods with a pre-set questionnaire or random sampling.

Data collection

 

It will follow mixed process, informal way – case history, analysis by community, courtyard gathering etc.

In a more structured way, with some questionnaire, FGD and interview.

Data Compilation and result generalize

 

Data compilation with the active participation of community, the way that community people can participate (not always following ICT tools or structured way like  SPSS etc.). And also conduct data validation meeting with community people.

Data analysis will be done using various up to dated software (MS Excel, SPSS etc). Data validation will be follow the original research question and hypothesis.  

 

 

Regarding the differ of OUTCOMES of Participatory and Classical Social Research, we may say that the classical research will use the research knowledge in different publications and presentation in seminar or submit it to donors as well as use for other academic purpose. On the other hand as PAR have followed the participatory way, community people engaged actively with the research from initial stage; step by step the community people gathered new knowledge and their behavior change automatically and they will also take actions during the research period to address the problem they found in their community as well as action to implement the research findings. The community people also feel the ownership of the whole research steps and finally the will proactively fight to reaching the research findings in their practical life.